Addison Hart-Host - 'A Peaceful' MASSACRE AT ST. LOUIS---- BY ADDISON HART--Part 2
Addison Hart-Host - Nathaniel Lyon was taking action. Francis Blair, the Politician, wholly supported him. Blair claimed that the Volunteer Missouri Militia under General Daniel Frost were, with the aide of Governor Claiborne Jackson, attempting to seize St. Louis Arsenal. Finally, the only man capable of stopping him short of the President, General Harney, had been relieved of command. On May 9th, Lyon, after spying on the camp, received word that Harney was returning and decided to act quickly to prevent the effusion of blood...or so he thought...
Addison Hart-Host - Friday, May 10th, was a warm day for those encamped at Camp Jackson in Lindell's Grove. Frost was awoken that morning as usual by his Aide Colonel John S. Bowen. The men performed their routine drill and muster as was expected. At 3:15 pm, Frost saw a magnificent, yet terrible sight. 7000 men in regulation blue uniform were marching on the camp, with several men on horseback, and men dragging cannons behind them and deploying them for action. At the head of the line rode what appeared to be a perfect Celtic Cheiftain in blue uniform. It was Nathaniel Lyon.
Addison Hart-Host - Nathaniel Lyon was here. That morning he had amassed the Home Guard for an invasion and seizure of the camp. With him was the 1st U.S. Volunteers, with Lyon's aide Lt. John Schofield at it's head. On the other side of Lindell's Grove was the 2nd U.S. Volunteers under notorious Know-Knothing Col. Henry Boernstein. The 3rd, 4th, and 5th Volunteers, 5 Regiments of Reserve Corps, an artillery battery, and the 3rd Regiment Home Guards under famed German Leader Colonel Franz Sigel. Finally, Blair rode at the head of his 'Wide Awake' Guards and Captain Constantin Blandowski's 'Die Schwarze Garde' (Black Guard). Lyon had left only a company under Capt. Thomas Sweeny at the Arsenal.
archie clement - complaint were filed Lyon was interferring with St Louis police
Addison Hart-Host - Frost claimed that he had no idea what they wanted. He received word from a courier that Lyon demanded his surrender. The reply was that Frost had no disloyal designs but instead offered to preserve peace in the area. This was not good enough for Lyon. Lyon angrily wrote back that Frost was, with the aide of the Governor, planning the seizure of the Arsenal. Frost was was very taken aback...
Addison Hart-Host - "I have not for one moment conceived the idea that so illegal and unconstitutional a demand as I have just received from you would be made by an officer of the United States Army. I am wholly unprepared to defend my command from this unwarranted attack, and shall therefore be forced to comply with the demand." Frost surrendered. This and the event following were the events that constitued the main reason that such a bloody conflict was fought in Missouri. Blair and Lyon had not saved Missouri from the war, but propelled Missouri into it.
archie clement - even the horses knew what to do to Lyon
Addison Hart-Host - Lyon's spoil was less than 800 men. "1,200 rifle muskets of United States manufacture, late model .58 caliber; 6 field pieces, brass; 25 kegs of gunpowder; from 30 to 40 horses, and several arm chests of arms understood to be like the 1200 mentioned." Frost had of course issued of protest, but to no avail. The V
Addison Hart-Host - The VMM men were shackled and placed between two regiments of the Home Guards and were paraded down the streets of St. Louis.
Addison Hart-Host - Archie-- Whom is?
archie clement - When Lyon dismounted to accept the surrender, an aides mount promptly kicked him in the stomach
Addison Hart-Host - Archie-- Yep!
archie clement - the horse aimed a little high LOL
CoB - At least the horse had some horse sense
Addison Hart-Host - William Tecumseh Sherman and his seven year old son Willie were among those in the crowd watching the march. Sherman would of course, later be the infamous Union General. Civilians crowded the streets to watch the 'parade'. Other civilians blockaded their houses and hid, afraid of some horror. Their fears were justified.
Addison Hart-Host - Sherman saw an old woman in the crowd, weeping. He asked her what the matter was. She replied that her son was in the VMM and she was afraid for his life. Sherman replied there was nothing to be afraid of. He was mistaken.
Addison Hart-Host - Capt. Constantin Blandowski rode at the head of Die Schwarze Garde. He saw the crowds becoming angry and heard the shouts " darn the Dutch!" and " darned Dutch Blackguards!" (a play on the regiment's title) and saw the crying women and furious men. The men marched through Channing Gate and onto Olive Boulevard, where the VMM dumped their weapons. One soldier in the VMM whispered to another, "We shall be marched to the Arsenal tonight and God knows what will happen to us."
Addison Hart-Host - Frost and Bowen were at the head of the line alongside Lyon. Lyon's horse was becoming dangerous, kicking and bucking. Lyon was hurled to the ground in a heap with some bruises. He was unconscious.
Scarlet - I would suspect if you got kicked in the stomach you might be unconscious too AH! I can imagine the wind was totally sucked out of his lungs!
Scarlet - AH, refresh me here what is VMM?
Addison Hart-Host - Scarlet-- Volunteer Missouri Militia.
Scarlet - ok, thanks!
CoB - Lyon was unconscious til the time he was killed. Just woke up just before the fatal shot, Said somthing like, Where did all those darn rebs come from
Addison Hart-Host - As Lyon's aides rode to help him, his men were left temporarily without a leader and were confronted by angry civilians. The Massacre started at the same time in different sectors of the 'Parade' Route.
archie clement - Scarlet, thoughout the incident, horses exhibitted an strange intellegence, Sigel's mount also fell and pinned his leg to the street
CoB - That's OK AH you're doing good
CoB - Musta been rebel horses?
CoB - From Missouri?
Scarlet - AH, I can imagine that with troubles breaking out in more than one spot, the tragedy was far greater than it ever had to be!
Addison Hart-Host - On Olive Street, Ulysses S. Grant, in the crowds, watched as Col. Franz Sigel's 3rd Regiment split up in order to cross a thin lane. This was made worse by wagons moving through in many directions until troops, prisoners, and civilians were packed together uncomfortably into the lanes. Several civilians tossed rocks and bricks at the 'Dutchmen'. One drunkard, observed by Sherman, attempted to cross a lane that Sigel's men were marching upon. An officer pushed the man into a pile of earth and the drunk angrily pulled out a pistol and fired back at him. Unbelievably, Sherman watched the troops discharge their guns into the civilains at point-blank range.
Addison Hart-Host - Sherman and his son would have been killed had he not pushed Willy into a gully and jumped in after him. One teenager reportedly through his arms across his face to shield it, and a minute later was lying on the ground, one arm shot off and the other severly mangled.
archie clement - Boernstein gave the order
Addison Hart-Host - As Colonel Sigel heard the shots, he rode backward into his line and a bullet struck his horse in the leg, and the horse in turn topple over on Sigel, who narrowly escaped being crushed, but only suffered having his leg pinned to the street.
archie clement - perhaps the lesson is a armed militia shouldn't go against the will of the people
Addison Hart-Host - Young teenager Philip D. Stevenson was also in the crowd that day, and recalled watched Capt. Constantin Blandowski's march down the road. This was a few blocks away from where Sherman had his harrowing expierence. He saw a teenager chuck a dirt clod at Blandowski, which hit him in the chest and got in his eye. Blandowski yelled a slurred obscenity that his troops mistook for the order to fire. The guns of 'Die Scharze Garde' blazed.
Scarlet1 - Dumb question can a horse falling on you actually crush you?
Vickie - yes scarlet a horse can crush you if it falls on you
newyawk - Addison who gave the name of "Die Scharze Garde" to those guns? Was it someone who actually witnessed the Massacre?
CoB - Yes it can, scarlet, considring a horse can weigh as much as 1800 pounds
Scarlet1 - ouch, ok, was just wondering, really I did not know, have not been around horses very much as you can tell, if my sons had been here they would have asked them thanks for answering and not laughing at me!
Addison Hart-Host - When the smoke cleared, Stevenson watched a man angrily run up to Blandowski with a shotgun and blast him off his horse. The responce was another wave of fire, Blandowski was dead in a few minutes. "We went over to the grove immediatly after the occurence," wrote reporters for the 'Missouri Republican', "and a more fearful and ghastly site is seldom seen."
bluelady - I think AH meant to say Schwartze Garde
Addison Hart-Host - NY-- That was the name of the company.
newyawk - Well I still want to know what it is and who said it regarding the massacre
newyawk - Ok thanks AH
Scarlet1 - AH, that is what is known as after the fact I would think!
archie clement - New they were called the Die Schwartze Garde before, during and after the massacre
newyawk - Ok anyone know what it means?
archie clement - the name has nothing to do with the massacre itself
bluelady - Black guard
Scarlet1 - What? The Black Guard AH?
archie clement - the black guard?
Addison Hart-Host - The reporters saw 30 people sprawled out on the ground dead from wounds, with 70 wounded. About 100 people dead or wounded in all. When Lyon awoke he discovered that other than Blandowski, two of his men were dead, three VMM prisoners were dead as well as 28 civilians. One teenager had taunted the soldiers and was bayoneted even before the massacre really began. A girl of 14, two 14 year old boys, one 15 year old boy, and a 12 year old boy were mong the dead. One of the saddest deaths was that of a mother, who was carrying her baby. Both were shot and killed instantly. Father John Bannon of Kelly's Guards called it "a terrible massacre."
Addison Hart-Host - It means The Black Guard
Addison Hart-Host - Lyon returned to HQ to be approached by the old, bearded face of William Harney. Harney was furious. He was horrible angry at Lyon for his actions. He put up numerous posters informing the citizens of how sad he was about the events. Following are two examples of these.
Addison Hart-Host - "I have just returned to this post and have assumed the Military Command of this Department. No one can more deeply regret the deplorable state of affairs existing here than myself. The past can not be recalled. I can only deal with the present and the future." Another follows.
Scarlet1 - AH, I bet the citizens were not too inclined to accept the apologies after that massacre!
archie clement - but Harney misjudged how low Lincoln would sink
Addison Hart-Host - "I most anxiously desire to discharge the delicate and onerous duties developed upon me, so as to preserve my public peace. I shall acrefully abstain from the use of any unnecessary powers, from all the interefernce with the proper functions of the public officers of the State and City. I therefore call upon the public authorities and the people to aide me in preserving the peace."
Addison Hart-Host - This was not enough. On May 11th, Governor Jackson organized the creation of a new VMM under the command of 52 year old General Sterling Price. It's name: The Missouri State Guard.
bluelady - Lincoln was just interested in keeping Missouri in the union
archie clement - but he sacks Harney who is trying to restore order, an rewards the baby killer
Sir Aldie - Yeah, Lincoln needed the popular vote there in 64, and you know they didn't have the chad back in those days, so he was really sweating it.
Addison Hart-Host - Harney asked the Government for instructions on how to deal with these events. Abraham Lincoln soon praised Lyon for noteworthy conduct. Many did not...for good reason. Some people took events into their own hands. During the evening of May 10th, a Dr. McDowell tried to organize a 'big mob' outside his house with the purpose of "Killing all the d-a-m-ned Dutch." In revenge, at 11:00 PM, Col. Sigel confiscated Dr. McDowell
Addison Hart-Host - 's Medical College on 8th and Gratiot Street. This was unwise.
Scarlet1 - Is this the same Lincoln who had so many imprisoned as politicla enemies to himself and his government?
Addison Hart-Host - Lyon reported that on May 11th: "I left to Captain Callender and Lieutenant Saxton the duty of receiving and arming about 1,200 men from the northern portion of the city, who on returning to their station were fired upon by a mob, to which fire was returned by the troops." Two of Lyon's men were killed outright and ten civilians were killed. Some unruly German mutilated several bodies and stole from them. The Massacre was over.
Addison Hart-Host - Scarlet-- That was the event in Maryland.
Addison Hart-Host - The press loves to create names for any engagement or affair, and this one got quite a few names. New York Times called it "the Tragedy at St. Louis", other Pro-Northern Papers called it "The Battle of St. Louis", "Heroic Struggle in St. Louis", and bluntly "Massacre in St. Louis". As Lyon stated the event took place in order to keep the peace, Southern papers aptly called it "A 'Peaceful' Massacre in St. Louis."
Scarlet1 - A peaceful Massacre?, Now that is acontradiction in terms!
Addison Hart-Host - Judge Samuel treat of St. Louis called for an inquiry, and he got one. Treat bravely ruled Lyon's actions as "Illegal and Unconstitutional." "Without a doubt," he said, "had the men not been Southern Missouri men but instead German immigrants meeting at Camp Jackson, Captain Lyon would have applauded." Instead of discharging Lyon, Lincoln made him a General. Lyon held the prisoners overnight and released them the following morning (including Frost and Bowen who sooned joined the Confederate army). Capt. Emmett McDonald refused to be paroled as did Father Bannon and they were held in prison for a few more days. Men flocked to join the Missouri State Guard and Governor Jackson decided that Blair and Lyon must be driven from the state.
Sir Aldie - A Peaceful Massacre is like an Orderly Chaos.
Scarlet1 - That was not the first time that Lincoln rewarded men who had taken part in acts of treachery by appointing them to higher command! He made a habit of doing that!
archie clement - most didn't honor their paroles, because they felt the attack was illegal and unconstitutional
Addison Hart-Host - Even the most staunch Unionists like Hamilton Gamble and James Yeatman and Edward Bates were horrified at Lyon's actions. Shortly after the Harney-Price agreement later that month, Harney was replaced by Lyon and he led a violent march into Missouri that could only end with his death. Kelly's Guards were not present the day Camp Jackson surrendered and fought with the MSG against Lyon.
archie clement - later they exchanged for Mulligans men captured at Lexington
Addison Hart-Host - The following son was written by Private Joseph Leddy in 1861. Leddy fought with Kelly. The song "Invasion of Camp Jackson" goes to the tine "Happy Land of Canaan", the 1st Iowa's marching theme.
Addison Hart-Host - VERSE 1: It was the Tenth of May, Kelly's men were all away, When the Dutch surrounded Camp Jackson; Lyon was there, with Boernstein and Blair, to take our men from our happy land of Canaan!"
Addison Hart-Host - CHORUS: Oh! Oh! Oh! Ah! Ah! Ah!--The time of our glory is a-coming. We yet will see the time when all of us will shine, And drive the Hessians from our happy land of Canaan."
Addison Hart-Host - VERSE 2: Lyon camp into the camp with such a pompous tramp, and said "Frost you'll have to surrender; One half hour I'll give, that is, if you want to live, To get out of this happy land of Canaan!"
Addison Hart-Host - CHORUS: Oh! Oh! Oh! Ah! Ah! Ah! The time of our glory is a-coming. We yet will see the time when all of us will shine, And drive the Hessians from our happy land of Canaan!"
Scarlet - Tahnks AH, for another informative talk!
Scarlet1 - Has Left The Camp. - from n-link.com using Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.01; MSN 2.5; Windows 98) on 11/27 at 9:50pm EST)
archie clement - later everyone---good presentation Addison!
Addison Hart-Host - Here is Verse 6, the final verse of the song.
Addison Hart-Host - VERSE 6: Twas just three months that day, since the gloomy tenth of May, when Lyon once again had us surrounded. But we were fighting for State's Rights and we proved it in the fight, for we shot him in the happy land of Canaan!"
Addison Hart-Host - And that's what they did.
Addison Hart-Host - THE END
Addison Hart-Host - Any questions?
CoB - And that's the way it was, May 10, 1861
CoB - One question?
Addison Hart-Host - Of course CoB
CoB - Do you know who took the credit for shooting Lyon at Oak Hill?
Addison Hart-Host - Both a Confederate Sharpshooter and a Union Private.
CoB - Addison Hart-Host, I am impressed with your knowledge of Missouri history, seems to be the forgotton war
CoB - Was he fragged?
Addison Hart-Host - CoB-- Some evidence that he was. Several men swore to kill him once they got into action for what he did at Camp Jackson.
Addison Hart-Host - How did I do?
Addison Hart-Host - Night all!