Addison Hart - 'A Peaceful' MASSACRE IN SAINT LOUIS--- BY ADDISON HART----PART 1
Addison Hart - Camp Jackson was situated at Lindell's Grove, just inside the St. Louis, Missouri city limits. Lindell's Grove was a rectangular field with several fruit trees situated South, or just under the Central or Olive Plank Road, North of Laclede Avenue, East of Grand Avenue, and West of garrison Avenue, on the corner of Olive, Lindell, and Theresa Roads (the latter being the location of Camp Headquarters). Camp Jackson, founded 1860, was named after the fiery Governor Claibrone Fox Jackson. In 1861 this was the quiet training camp of the Volunteer Missouri Militia, by May 10th, however, it was the scene of a massacre...
Addison Hart - Now guys bear with me, as it takes me three minutes to type this all down.
Addison Hart - By April 12th, 1861, the day Fort Sumter was fired upon, Missouri was a bitterly torn state, ravaged by the events following the Kansas-Nebraska act, the so called Bloody Kansas wars. One of the main reasons of these wars was to decide whether Kansas would remain a free or slave state. The so-called 'Border Ruffians' of Missouri were repelled and the so-called 'Free Soilers' of the North had gained a minimal victory, through atrocity.
Addison Hart - It's true that the 'Border Ruffians' among other things sacked Lawrence, but it must be noted that the 'Free Soilers' were no better, in fact in some ways worse. They bred, for example, the demons John Brown and James H. Lane and the bitter murderers 'Jayhawkers'.
Addison Hart - However, by 1860, this had whined down. Despite it's title *'Little Dixie'*, Missouri had just as many pro-Southerners as pro-Northerners. The Governor, Claiborne Fox Jackson, was Pro-Secession, though not as fanatically so as imagined by historians. Jackson was a tall, handsome man, with long black hair pouring from a pale, white head.
Addison Hart - *'Little Dixie'*, as Archie Clement pointed out Wednesday, was the title for a certain division of the state.
Addison Hart - Any questions? Throughout the discussion I welcome questions and shall answer them as best as I can. I welcome any contributions or comments.
Addison Hart - 'Claib' Fox Jackson was, in fact, a Kentuckian, born at Fleming City, April 4th, 1806. Jackson came to Missouri in the 1820s. A successful businessman, he was taught by his father-in-law how to be a public speaker. His political career spanned 26 years, beginning in 1836, when he was elected to state legislature. He survived bitter opposition from Senator Thomas hart Benton to become Governor in late 1860, as a Democrat. However, at his inaguration in December he avowed compromise. He would do much work in his largest city, St. Louis...
Crowbar - I missed that part about *Little Dixie* What is that.??
Addison Hart - St. Louis was not only home to the large state arsenal just won the Mississippi River a little ways from the original foundations of the old city, built 1790, there was, at opposite end of the city, a new camp, the training ground for the Missouri Volunteer Militia (VMM).
archie clement - its a 4-5 county area north of St Louis, and along the Mississippi river
Addison Hart - Thanks, Archie.
archie clement - most all the settlers were from the south
Crowbar - OK Thanks
Addison Hart - Camp Jackson would be recognizable today as the area of Frost Campus, St. Louis University, but was at the time situated at Lindell's Grove, surrounded by inviting fruit trees.
bluelady - Addison, to your knowlege, are any of the ramparts for the fort remaining?
Addison Hart - This was the yearly meeting place of the VMM, composed of little over 700 men, who would meet once a year for routine drill and muster. This gathering had the pre-approval of the city and of the Arsenal Commander Major William A. Bell.
Addison Hart - It must be noted that at the time, St. Louis was flooded by the inpour of European immigrants, mainly German and Irish, which is why many of the VMM men were Irish (Kelly's Guards) and several German. The rowdy Germans, however, were known to start riots or have riots started against them. Most Germans were Republican and most Irish were Democrat. In fact an entire Irish regiment was formed, the Kelly's Guards, led by Col. Joseph Kelly, this unit would later gain fame in the Missouri State Guard.
Addison Hart - Bluelady-- There were no earthworks. It wasn't a fort, just a camp. As far as I know the only defense was a small stonewall.
Addison Hart - Many Germans rallied into the Union Garrison at St. Louis headed by the old Indian fighter Brigadier General William Selby Harney. Harney actually controlled the entire 'Department of the West' with HQ in St. Louis.
archie clement - religion played a large role in the racial division
Addison Hart - The Germans were mainly Lutheran, the Irish Catholic, another major reason the two had animosities.
KyReb - Religion...the excuse of man to kill other men.
archie clement - yep
bluelady - Oh boy! You put religion into a civil war and what do you get? God on both sides?
Sir Aldie - Hey, the cannoneers were Orthodox Jews. They couldn't load and fire their pieces on the Sabbath.
Addison Hart - The Germans were enrolled into the Home Guards Regiments, led by among others Major Peter V. Hagner and Captain Franz Sigel as well as a Captain Constantin Blandowski. The most famous of these units was the Die Schwarz Garde or Black Guard.
KyReb - War is civilized until the regigious people stick their noses in. Then when people turn on them...they yell the loudest.
Scarlet - So they couldn't fire the canons fom sun down onFriday till Satuday evening Aldie?
Addison Hart - On December 20th, 1860, South Carolina seceded, followed by a string of secessionist states. In February, Governor Jackson called a Constitutional Convention to decide whether Missouri would leave the Union. Missouri stayed by only a few votes.
Addison Hart - Aldie-- Kamakaze Scotsmen.
Addison Hart - The U.S. Arsenal in the Southern Part of the city was full. It had 30,000 muskets, 50 tons of gunpowder, field pieces, 150,000 cartridges and many other such items stored in the main building alone. The Arsenal appeared secure, being surrounded by a stonewall, but Congressman Frank Preston Blair, Jr., wanted to be sure. Major Bell of North Carolina was removed for two reasons, 1st) He was Southern, 2nd) He was arranging that the VMM garrison the Arsenal with his men. Bell's replacement was the German Major Peter V. Hagner.
Addison Hart - On April 12th, 1861, the Civil War began. At this time the VMM was headed by the long mustached Daniel Marsh Frost, a Brigadier General of Militia.
Addison Hart - Now everyone BOO Blair and ROOT for Frost.
RWH - everybody boo both and root for Price
WuzReb - LOL, RWH, you swiped the words from my mouth!
Addison Hart - Frost was born in Schenectady City, New York, on August 9th, 1823. He graduated 4th in his class of 1844 from West Point. Frost fought bravely at Cerro Gordo in the Mexican War and moved to Missouri in 1853, resigning from the army and was elected general of the VMM. He was very poular with his men.
Addison Hart - Actually, Frost was a tragic hero here. You'll see in Part 2 (last part).
Addison Hart - Winfield Scott was afraid for St. Louis and repeatedly asked Harney if he had enough men to defend it. Harney always replied that Scott need not worry. Scott was not the only man that worried, but Frank Blair, even after removing Bell, was not satisfied.
archie clement - at this point, did Harney and Frost already have a agreement?
Addison Hart - On March 19th, Major Hagner was horrified to discover that he had been replaced. He asked Col. Lorenzo Thomas, Adjutant General's Assistant, "May I not hope, therefore, that some explanatory statement shall be published in this case?" The reply came from Blair. He wanted someone more 'loyal', the man chosen was Nathaniel Lyon...
RWH - a cross-dresser as some of you may not know
Addison Hart - Archie--- No, they never had an agreement, that was the Price-Harney Agreement, the result of this affair.
WuzReb - I'd BOO Lyon, but I'm afraid Xan might show up with a hammer....
Addison Hart - Right at the end of this part.
KyReb - Ole Frost a hero? Fella sort of forgot to tender is resignation before he took off to Canada. LOL some forgot'n hero.
archie clement - but didn't Harney and Frost have communication?
Addison Hart - Nathaniel Lyon, Captain of Company 'B', Second Infantry, was appointed commander of St. Louis Arsneal and "Defenses". Lyon had the appearance of the perfect Celtic Cheiftain, had a large red beard with a short muscualr body and sad droopy face.
Addison Hart - Archie-- Yes. They were very friendly. It was when Lyon came in that hostilities began.
archie clement - Where Frost had assured him he had no intention of taking the arsenal?
archie clement - Hooray Price and the Rams about to do battle
Addison Hart - Lyon was born in Ashford, Connecticutt, on July 14th, 1818. Graduated 11th in his class of 1841 at West Point, the foul tempered Lyon was indifferent to slavery until he was sent to Fort Riley, Kansas where he played a role in 'Bleeding Kansas'. From then on he bitterly hated slavery and even more so, secession.
archie clement - How can that be true?
archie clement - didn't the "free-soilers" basicly secede from the legal government of KS? And Lyon supported them.
Addison Hart - Nathaniel Lyon started his work by shipping most of the weapons in the Arsenal to Illinois and fortifying his position.
Addison Hart - Lyon and Blair were, at this time, good friends. Needless to say, he suspected Frost of attempting to seize the arsenal.
Addison Hart - To add to this, Lyon showed nothing but contempt for Harney, whom he believed to be a coward who couldn't face ' darned secessionists'. It seems he missed the point that Missouri was not a secessionist state and that the VMM was not a Confederate unit. In fact the men of the VMM displayed a mix of ideas, there were just as many Union, if not more, flags then Confederate. In fact Frost swore on his deathbed there were no Southern flags in Camp Jackson.
Addison Hart - To add to all this, Lyon recruited Federal soldiers, breaking the laws of the army, for this act was reserved to a Constitution of Congress.
Addison Hart - By the first week of May he had 6,000 men, most of which were Germans who couldn't even speak English. The units Lyon had were the 1st US Volunteers (his own regiment), Blair's "Wide Awake Militia", and Colonel Henry Boernstein's 2nd US Volunteers. Boernstein was an Austrian with strong Anti-Catholic views, which is why he would by so reviled by the kelly's Guards, made up of Catholic Irish.
RWH - Wouldn't think he would set too well with Siegel's boys, given the St. Louis Germans were staunch Catholics
Addison Hart - Camp Jackson's VMM was composed of several commands, led by Frost and his Aide Colonel John Stevens Bowen, later to become a great Confederate General. Some of his regiments included Henry Guibor's Artillery, Kelly's Guards, Knapp's Guards (led by the staunchly pro-Union Col. Joseph Knapp), and Major George Dill's battalion to name but a few.
Addison Hart - On April 15th, 1861, Abraham Lincoln called for troops from Missouri to come and invade the South. Governor Jackson was, to say the least, appalled.
Addison Hart - "Your requisition, in my judgement is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary in it's object, inhuman, and diabolical, and cannot be complied with. Not one man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on an unholy crusade." This was the reply given the Governor.
Addison Hart - He was also right in stating in the Missouri Legislature that "So abhorrent is the doctrine of coercion that in any attempt at such would result in the the people of Missouri to rallying on the side of their brethern to resist to the last extremity."
Addison Hart - This was passed almost unanimously in the Missouri Legislature.
Addison Hart - As a gift to the people of Missouri, Jefferson Davis, the Confederate President, sent the steamship J.C. SWAN to St. Louis, full of crates marked 'Tamaroa Marble'. The SWAN was quitely greeted by a company of the VMM and taken to Camp Jackson on the night of May 8th, 1861.
Addison Hart - Apparently the SWAN left flying the Stars and Bars. Upon the opening of the mysterious crates, it was discovered that davis had actually shipped them two 12 pound howitzers, two 32 pound guns, muskets, and a load of ammunition. They discovered also that the cannons bore the seal of the Baton Rouge Arsenal which had fallen to the South January 10th.
Addison Hart - However, even if Frost wanted to, there was no way he could have attacked and taken over the Arsenal of St. Louis, as he had less than 800 men, and Lyon had nearly 10,000. At the Arsenal, things had developed as well, Harney had been removed, the sad old man was sent back to Washington due to Blair's scheming. On April 21st, Harney received the letter. His replacement was Nathaniel Lyon.
Addison Hart - Here comes Lyon's tastes in dress!
Addison Hart - Without Harney he could do what he wanted, and he did so May 9th, 1861. That afternoon, the VMM had a visitor at Camp Jackson. It was a woman clothed in black who's face was blotted out by many veils. She said she was Frank Blair's blind mother in law. The woman took a carriage through the camp. By the end of the ride she was satisfied and marched into the Arsenal HQ amid salutes. 'She' happened to be Nathaniel Lyon.
WuzReb - And I'm sure he didn't have matching gloves, probably something horrid and brown....
archie clement - Oh well, Yanks always did dress funny
Addison Hart - Lyon had borrowed Blair's mother in law's clothing and had on a belt full of loaded pistols. His great beard was hidden by veils. He had seen what he wanted, some Southern flags (amid many more Union ones) and streets named Jeff Davis Avenue and PGT Beauregard Road (despite the fact that there were many roads crossing through the camp, nearly all named after famous military leaders, including Scott). What Lyon saw but did not understand was mixed loyalties and backrounds. There were ven Harps of Erin and West Point Artillery Flags.
KyReb - Nothing worse than a yankee cross dresser with a red beard. That's just pure ugly.
WuzReb - Lyon was blind, all right....
RWH - AH, they weren't there to secede. Just to defend the State like many Missourians had been doing the past 5 or so years
WuzReb - KyReb, yup, reckon that's about ugly enough to make a train take a dirt road!
Addison Hart - Furthermore, reads the oath of Camp Jackson: "You, each of you, do solemnly swear that you will honestly and faithfully serve the State of Missouri against all her enemies; that you do your utmost to sustain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and of the State, against all violence of whatsoever kind or description. And you do further swear that you will well and truly obey the legal orders of all officers placed over you when on duty."
Addison Hart - RWH-- My point exactly!
archie clement - Like most insane, he only saw what he wanted to see
archie clement - opps insane
Addison Hart - It must also be pointed out that General Frost had more Pro-Northern than Southern leanings. He always swore that the build-up of the State Militia and weapons was purely "constituted to keep the peace."
Addison Hart - On that day, Lyon received crushing news. Harney had been reinstated to command! Lyon knew that the VMM dispersed yearly on May 11th, but decided the treachery had to be crushed. On May 10th his men set out for Camp Jackson.
Addison Hart - END OF PART 1
Addison Hart - Next Monday at 8:00 PM EST: Last Part. The Seizure and the Massacre.
Addison Hart - ANY QUESTIONS?
REL - Addison--Did the Confed. declare war on the Union? If so about what date did this happen?
Addison Hart - The Confederates never officially declared war on the union until after the first few attacks on them.
Addison Hart - ANY MORE QUESTIONS?
REL - Good job, the part I saw, Addison....
WuzReb - Addison, just one; when is Part Two?
RWH - AH, think about it. Too many folks don't even know the War happened here and we were the first to fight.
Addison Hart - Archie-- I end my talk last night with a song by a member of Kelly's Guards on the Seizure and Massacre. The last line, on Lyon, is "And we shot him in the Happy Land of Canaan!" So ends the discussion.
Addison Hart - ANY MORE QUESTIONS?
Addison Hart - RWH-- Archie says it was before Wilson's Creek.