Addison Hart-Host - THAT DARK AND BLOODY GROUND, Part 1, at 8:00 Eastern, is on Zollicoffer's Kentucky Campaign.
Addison Hart-Host - ZOLLICOFFER reigned supreme in Kentucky. He and his small army had seized towns, destroyed Union presses and two Union Militia Corps, capturing two Yankee Camps, and plundering a great salt works. However, he tested his men greatly, and this brought his downfall.... THAT DARK AND BLOODY GROUND By Addison Hart PART 1
Addison Hart-Host - IN THE year 1860, on December 20th, the expected occured, Secession! First went South Carolina, then two weeks later went Mississippi, and soon a tidalwave of 'Sesh' states rolled through the Southern United States.
Ann - Secession for the Union or the Confet.?
Addison Hart-Host - Along the Mason-Dixon Line, the great divider of the North and South, several states remained neutral, none of these 'Border States' would select an allegiance. These states were primarily Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland. the first of those states had been contested over long before the Civil War, but Kentucky was new to this breed of warfare.
Addison Hart-Host - Ann---- Secession for the South.
Addison Hart-Host - A relatively new state, Kentucky, was best known and remembered for it's great hero, frontiersman, Daniel Boone, first buried in Missouri, then in Kentucky. One of Boone's great admirers was Albert Sidney Johnston. Johnston, born in 1803 in the small town of Washington, KY, was already a major hero of the Blackhawk, Mexican, and Texan War, as well as being a Colonel in the Mormon Expedition.
Addison Hart-Host - When the Civil War began, Johnston, a good friend of Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis, was assigned command of Department No. 2, the Department of the West, the main defense of which was an army of ragged Tennessians and Kentuckians known as the Kentucky Line.
shari - I didn't know ASJ was in the Mormon Expedition...verra interesting, AH.
Addison Hart-Host - When Albert Johnston reached his post in August, 1861, his men cheered as he jumped out of his coach. The tall, muscular, handsome man with a flowing gray mustache was the pride of Dixie and of Kentucky.
Jack - AH, sorry to interrupt... Johnston commanded from the Miss. River to Kentucky and the Alleghenies, right?
Addison Hart-Host - His son, Colonel William Preston Johnston ran to him to introduce him to the tall, lanky commander of the Kentucky Line. The Line's commander waddled forward and Johnston got a good look at him. He sported a flowing black pompadour and a neatly trimmed balck goatee. He introduced himself as General Zollicoffer.
Addison Hart-Host - Correct, Jack.
Addison Hart-Host - Felix Kirk Zollicoffer was born in Maury County, Tennessee on the 19th of May, 1812, when America was embroiled in it's second war with Great Britain. As a youth, Felix worked on his family plantation and attended Jackson College in Columbia for one year. In Paris, the 16 year old joined the newspaper trade and by the age of 18 he was a journeyman printer in Knoxville. In 1834 he became editor of the Columbia OBSERVER and helped edit the SOUTHERN AGRICULTURIST and the Huntsville, Alabama MERCURY. He was named State Printer in 1835, when he volunteered for the Seminole War.
Addison Hart-Host - Hey guys, I know this is a hard thing to enter in, but I want this discussion to be interactive! Any comments, questions, or additions are welcome!
15thTN - Where did A.S. Johnston meet with Zollicoffer?
Ann - What year did Johnson meet Zollicoffer?
Addison Hart-Host - Zollicoffer served as 1st Lieutenant in the TN Volunteers during the 2nd Seminole War. He attained that rank briefly. In 1842, back printing papers, he became editor of the Nashville REPUBLICAN BANNER, a large powerful Whig organ. From 1846 to 1849, he was Tennesee's Adjutant General and comptroller.
Addison Hart-Host - 15th---- Knoxville, TN, Ann--- 1861.
15thTN - Do you know what Johnston thought of Zollicoffer?
Addison Hart-Host - Known throughout Tennessee for his fiery editorials, Zollicoffer won himself a place as State Senator from 1849 until 1852. Staunchly Whig, Zollicoffer won himself a place as State Senator from 1849 to 1852. Staunchly Whig, Zollicoffer spearheaded the Political Campaign that put William Campbell in the Governor's Chair of Tennessee and in 1853 won himself a seat in the US House of Representatives which he held until 1859.
Addison Hart-Host - 15th--- He actually had high hopes for Zolly. He generally liked him.
shari - Hmmm, so he was a political general....
REL - Addison-H. Am glad to hear that Zolli was an editor. Gen'l Lee said that the Confed. "best generals" were the newspaper editors.
Jack - "Staunchly Whig" is right... State's Rights Whig.
shari - REL...wonder why that was so?
Addison Hart-Host - During his campaign for the House of Representatives, Zollicoffer had fought a duel with the editor of the Nashville UNION. Though staunchly Whig, he was also a champion for States' Rights, though not a support of secession and attended the 1861 Washington Peace Conference and even campaigned for John Bell as president, but, despite his efforts, Tennessee seceded and he would fight for it.
Addison Hart-Host - REL--- True, true.
newyawk - Addison was the Nashville Union against secession?
Addison Hart-Host - Governor Isham Harris made Zollicoffer a Brigadier General in TN State Forces in April, 1861, and then Harris wanted to transfer him with the same rank to Confederate service. Though Zollicoffer at first declined, he gave in to Harris. On July 9th, he received a Brigadier Generalship in the CSA and command of the Distrcit of East Tennessee, Department No. 2.
REL - Shari--Lee felt none of the great military leaders could or did may good civilian (top) leaders. With one exception: George Washington, his step-great grand father-in-law
15thTN - Why did it take TN so long to secede.
Addison Hart-Host - NY--- Yes.
Addison Hart-Host - 15th--- Tennessee was torn, strongly pro-Northern as well as Southern!
shari - REL..that is an interesting thought.
REL - Jack--Absolutely correct--I was using a little satire....
15thTN - It's funny that they were so torn but in the end, they sent more men to the CSA. Just another interesting fact of the war I guess.
REL - 15th--Think you asked a great question....much of the country was torn between--goinging, staying, not going, letting others go, and not letting others go (peacefully or not). Tenn. was one such place (it really split--E. Tn. was strongly Union as you know).
Addison Hart-Host - Those events led up to this fine summer day when he met Albert Johnston, his superior. Johnston learned that Zollicoffer had followed orders well. He had taken Knoxville and secured Cumberland Gap with 4000 men in under a month. His men loved him, calling him 'Pap' and 'Pap Zolly'. Johnston, impressed with his show of initiative, gave him a new assignment: Zollicoffer would expand Johnston's thin defensive line and organize a campaign to drive the Yanks out of Kentucky. His words were: "Preserve peace, protect the railroad, and repel invasion." Johnston would not be disappointed.
Jack - Indeed he wouldn't
Ann - Zolly Jack?
Addison Hart-Host - On September 18th, 1861, Johnston and Zollicoffer occupied Bowling Green, fortified it, and set to work on the creation of the Kentucky Line, which would span the Southern part of the state. Word came from Colonel Simon Buckner's men that they had skirmished with Federal forces under the combined command of William T. Sherman and Lovell Rousseau. It was believed that they were getting assistance from another Union force as well, that of William 'Bull' Nelson, a large, bearded and fiery Yankee who's temper eventually got him murdered. Buckner's force destroyed the Rolling Fork Bridge that Sherman was planning to cross, therefore prolonging Sherman's march.
Jack - Ann--Johnstion would not be disappointed with Zolly, stay tuned...
15thTN - Where was Buckner located at this time?
Jack - "Bull" Nelson forgot to pack heat the day he was killed...'nother story, sorry AH
shari - Addison...tell me where the Kentucky Line extends again....sorry had to get a map out...
Addison Hart-Host - Sherman eventually arrived at Elizabethtown, where he intended to cross Green River via locks near Rochester, however, before he arrived, he discovered that Buckner had already blown up the locks and left.
Addison Hart-Host - 15th---- Elizabethtown.
Addison Hart-Host - Shari--- From Cumberland Gap to around Columbus. Spread thin.
shari - Thanks AH!
15thTN - Hmm he had his hands full with the terrain alone. Etown is fairly rough country.
Addison Hart-Host - Sherman moved against Buckner's camp near Hopkinsville, however, Buckner was warned and his men were ordered to move to the camp near Owensboro. They succeeded, but with the temporary loss of Buckner, who had been captured. He was soon released and returned to his men, occupying Hopkinsville after skirmishing with the Home Guards. they placed a garrison there under KY Militia General Alcorn. They then returned to Bowling Green.
Addison Hart-Host - What do you think of Buckner?
REL - Addison-H. "captured...soon released and returned to his men...." Could you explain particulars?
JimBob - Buckner seemed pretty good at surrendering
Ann - I think he is lucky to have been released.
shari - that's putting it lightly..LOL
Ann - Jim: He surrendered to Sherman?
Ann - Oh I understand now
Ann - By the way AH, tell me why did they let him go from the prison?
JimBob - shari, well the books always say he was a good soldier but the only thing I can ever see that he did was surrender... he surrendered Ft Donelson , and negotiated Kirby Smith's surrender in between he seemed to keep his skirts pretty clean
15thTN - He seemed to be a compotent commander, who should have been in command at Fort Donelson. He also seemed to spend as much time with the Yanks as the CSA, by getting captured as much as he did.
shari - verra true, JimBob.
Addison Hart-Host - Johnston was pleased with Buckner's success and congratulated him and his superior, Leonidas Polk, who craftily held Columbus on the edge of the Kentucky/Illinois/Missouri Border.
Addison Hart-Host - Don't know why Buckner was released. It's odd.
Ann - Did he escape Addison?
JimBob - heck the Yanks wanted him on the other side so he could surrender some more
Ann - Or did they release him?
REL - Huh! I smell a Yankee turncoat--no wonder Ft. Donelson' garrison was so easily given up....
15thTN - Polk picked a good location for a fort at Columbus, but his move to there might have swayed the vote for KY to stay Union.
REL - Jack--I guess L. Polk, the Zolli and N. B. Forrest all grew up in the same community down there in and around Maury Cty. Fightin' must have been in their blood and Co. Ayth's too. Dying in the blood of Sam Davis who grew up nearby.
Addison Hart-Host - Buckner was promoted Brigadier and given command of the Central Division of Kentucky. Johnston received reports of the Union camp and garrison at Barboursville, not far from Bowling Green. Barboursville's populace was strongly pro-union and welcomed the Federal, allowing establishment of Camp Andrew (or Andy) Johnson. There he learned, some of the Home Guard, Sherman's men whom Buckner had skirmished with, held the town. Alsdo, there was a large Salt Works in the town.
Jack - REL--not many people know that...somethin' was definitely in the water.
Addison Hart-Host - There were some 300 men of the Home Guard in and around the twon. They were under the command of Captain Isaac J. Black. The men were there were well trained throughout the Summer of 1861, they felt ready to meet Johnston and anything he could send them. 'Zolly' was ready for a fight. The Kentucky Line received it's baptism of fire on September 19th, 1861, as 800 men under Zollicoffer attacked, expecting to find the rest of the recruits known as the Home Guards, but to their chagrin, only Black's 300 remained.
Ann - So the Union won that battle AH?
Addison Hart-Host - The forces Zollicoffer had committed were the 20th Tennessee, commanded by Col. Joel Allen Battle, an excellent veteran fighter. He was called 'Grandpa' by his men due to the fact that he had a large, white mustache and flowing white beard. The Confederates found the training camp and attacked, Black's men fighting ferociously. After the small fight, Black abandoned his camp, his men limping away to join the rest of the Home Guards at Camp Dick Robinson. The militia under Black had taken 15 casualties, inflicting 5 on Battle.Camp 'Andy' Johnson was then destroyed. Johnston's bluff tactics were working.
REL - Yeah! What can 800 men do to 300 well dug in fighters?
Addison Hart-Host - Ann--- No, the Union took quite a beating at Barboursville.
Ann - Was the south looking for the training camp or did they find it by accident?
Addison Hart-Host - Ann--- They were looking for it.
shari - JLC, sounds like my neighbors.
Addison Hart-Host Sherman thought he needed 200,000 troops to defeat Johnston, when in reality he already outnumbered him two to one. Johnston's numbers were pitiful. Polk had 11,000, Zollicoffer 4,000, and Buckner 4,000. Johnston had placed Buckner under the command of a new officer who had just arrived in Bowling green, William Joseph Hardee, esteemed author of HARDEE'S RIFLE & LIGHT INFANTRY TACTICS. On the 20th, Johnston abandoned Mayfield and on the 22nd, in a short skirmish, Polk drove back an attack by Brigadier General U.S. Grant.
6thnc - addison why did always the union thought the confederates has so many numbers when they didnt?
Addison Hart-Host - 400 Federals encamped at Albany had made prisoners of Zollicoffer's captured men and Confederate sypathizers. This action greatly angered 'Zolly', who ordered a detachment of cavalry under Captain William Bledsoe to attack them. On September 23rd, Bledsoe attacked, routing the Federals, capturing the Camp and 60 muskets.
Addison Hart-Host - Around this time, 'Zolly' had done alot of work in his assigned area. He had destroyed a second Yankee Camp at Albany, plundered the salt works, seized pro union presses, and arrested dangerous Yankee sympathizers. He was doing well for a beginner. To add to that, Zollicoffer had again encountered Isaac Black, this time at London, and quickly drove them off with a few shots. Zollicoffer had two targets now, the large Camp Dick robinson,and the heavily fortified Camp Wildcat, positioned on the Wildcat Mountains, also knwon as Rockcastle Heights or London Heights.
Addison Hart-Host - It was garrisoned by Colonel Theophilis T. Garrard's 7th Kentucky Volunteers and Col. Frank L. Wolford's 1st KY Cavalry.
Addison Hart-Host - Zollicoffer had 5400 men, one brigade. Col. James E. Rains commanded the 11th TN, Col. William S. Statham commanded the 15th Mississippi, Col. Taz W. Newman commanded the 17th TN, Col. David H. Cummings commanded the 19th TN, Col. Battle commanded the 20th, Col. Sam Powell commanded the 29th. Capt. Arthur Middleton Rutledge commanded the Tennessee battery, and there were two regiments of cavalry, the 2nd TN under Lt. Col. Ben M. Brauner, and the 1st under Lt. Col. F.N. McNair.
Addison Hart-Host - Garrard was terribly afraid of the rpospect of attack. His un-organized regiment of raw recruits were slowly building fortifications atop the mountain where the Wilderness Road leading to the peak begins a steep ascent into the Rockcastle Hills northeast of London. Wolford's men, who had been with Black at London, were positioned ahead of Garrard to act as scouts.
Addison Hart-Host - As Zollicoffer's approach became more apparent, Garrard pleaded with his superiors, "...if I do not receive more troops [I intend] to abandon this place...I have no idea of having my men butchered up here where they have a force of six to one...I would like to hear from you immediately!"
Addison Hart-Host - And here comes the last paragraph!
Addison Hart-Host - Garrard felled trees along the Wilderness Road as a delaying tactic against Zollicoffer as he waited for reinforcements. They came in the form of the 33rd Indiana, 17th Ohio under Col. John Connell, and 1st Ohio Artillery Battery. More were advancing from Camp Dick Robinson. The forces arriving were commanded by Brigadier General Albin F. Schoepf. Until Schoepf arrived, Wildcat would be commanded by Col. John Coburn. On October 17th, Zollicoffer was sighted. Zollicoffer encountered Wolford on the Wilderness Road on the 19th and advanced. The skirmish continued until nightfall the 20th. The next day all hell broke loose on that dark and bloody ground....
Addison Hart-Host - END OF PART 1
Addison Hart-Host - Next week: Part 2, Zolly attacks Camp Wildcat, but will he break the union defense? We will see, next time in THAT DARK & BLOODY GROUND!
6thnc - nice addison, will be there on time next time!
mobile_96 - I enjoyed it Addison
Jlc723 - Same discussion time. Same chat page.
Addison Hart-Host - Yes, JLC.
REL - Bravo! Addison-Hart
Jlc723 - Sorry I didn't arrive in time to read the first half but with what was able to read Addison, I'd say it was a job well done sir!
Addison Hart-Host - OK. Well, it's finished until next week!