Creek and Seminole Alliance
The Confederate States Embrace on the American Indian

     At the outbreak of the war, the Confederate States of America, by act of Congress seized the opportunity to enter into treaty with a number of Indian nations throughout the eleven seceded states and territories. Brigadier General Albert Pike, Confederate Commissioner to the Indians west of Arkansas and Missouri, vested with the authority to enjoin the nations of the Creek and Seminole Indians with a protectorate agreement on May 21, 1861, entitled both to remain sovereign unto themselves, yet militarily protected by the Armies of the Confederate States against invasion by intruder and Federal Army alike.
Creek Indian
     These Indian nations became a vital manpower asset to the Confederacy, required to muster into Confederate Service one regiment of mounted men, ten companies in all, to assist in driving the Federal Invaders from their homeland. The Richmond Government promised not to interfere with tribal law; the citizens thereof would answer to their own established tribunals for crimes and not be brought to justice by the laws of the state.

     These tribes would be entitled to embrace any outsider if voted in by election and given citizenship, subject to their laws. This courtesy, likewise, was extended to any negro or mulatto so embraced by them. All intruders not acceptable to the Indians would be handled expeditiously by the Confederate States, using the army if necessary and extracted from their land.
     The Indian Agencies in compliance with the Treaty of January 24, 1826 under the direction of President John Quincy Adams, would be maintained, however the land was promised to be returned should the agency no longer be necessary. In addition, forts were entitled to be erected within the territorial boundaries of the two nations and garrisoned by white Confederate Officers. When peace was restored across the country, the preferred enlisted troops were to be found among the Creek and Seminole themselves manning the fortifications under arms. These forts would be constructed on no more than 1 square mile of ground and any loss or damage to property belonging to the said nations would be fully compensated for by the government in Richmond.

     All traders wishing to do business were first required to execute bond with the Confederate States. Taking effect on January 1, 1862, the Indians were permitted by law to levy a one and a quarter percent tax upon the first cost of all goods traded within their jurisdiction. No encroachment by citizens of the Confederate States would be tolerated by driving live stock through the territorial land without likewise paying the Creek and Seminole a one dollar a head penalty fee for doing so. In turn, these Indian nations had the authority to drive and sell their own live stock throughout the states of the Confederacy.
J Q Adams
     Fugitive slaves would be dealt with according to law. The Indians would turn over to the Confederate authority all fugitive slaves seeking refuge within their lands; and any such slaves fleeing the tribal lands would likewise be promptly returned to their rightful Indian masters. These nations had no restrictions in the black slave trade, buying or selling their slaves under protection of the Confederate Constitution.

     Lawfully identified as property, the ownership of black slaves among the Indians was entitled to be passed down in the family from one generation to the other. The ownership of said slaves deemed personal property would be protected in accordance with the existing laws governing its practice.
     Legal indictments in transporting witnesses from the Indian nations to testify in courts arraigned within the Confederate States would be paid solely by the Richmond Government, including the processing, services, and mileage to and from the nation.

     All of the old annuities that the United States of America paid the Creek and Seminole would be handled by the Confederate States including that of the education and agricultural operations. The investments by stock and bond over the years along with the interest came to nearly a quarter million dollars, later to be paid to the surviving members or legal representatives of those deceased Creeks leaving behind their orphan children.
     These Indians were entitled to representation in the Congress of the Confederacy. Holding election, delegates could carry a certification of election given them by the Indian Agency granting them their proper seat among their fellow Congressmen in Richmond.

     In joining the fight for Southern Independence, these Indian nations enjoyed the same rights and privileges as any other citizen of Dixie; entitled to the Southern Government's protection, yet sovereign as a nation in the midst of a nation. Unlocking another human resource in the defense against a central government that was choking their very existence; the Southern States secured the armed assistance of the American Indian, believing it to be enough to continue the antebellum way of life.

Dan (Aldie) Daniel Moran
© 2005

Editors Note: Mr.Moran is a feature writer on the writers staff. He may be contacted with your questions, ideas and requests at